Breaking the Rules of Chemistry
Contaminant sorption and NAPL formation are the most significant limiting factor that reduces the availability of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents for physical, biological and chemical remediation within soil, fractured bedrock and groundwater. This coupled with the high surface tension of groundwater (73 Dynes) results in pore space pathway interferences caused by 'interfacial tension' existing between the groundwater, vapour, sorbed and NAPL (LNAPL, DNAPL) phases. These collectively work to limit the ‘Access' to and 'Availability’ of contaminants for all forms of remediation, explaining why many remediation projects are slow, costly, and/or fail!
Fortunately, Ivey-sol® has the unique ability to selectively desorb sorbed and NAPL phases into groundwater, and overcoming interfacial tension, whereby breaking many conventional hydro-geo-chemical rules to significantly improve contaminant availability for in-situ and ex-situ remediation. This capacity produces substantial and measurable benefits when treating vapour intrusion, soil, bedrock, and groundwater contamination.
- Ivey-sol® makes insoluble contaminants miscible.
- Ivey-sol® reduces water surface tension, improving K in finer grain geology.
- Ivey-sol® overcomes interfacial tension (resolving limitations of Henry and Raoult's laws) .
- Ivey-sol® is the only selective sub CMC surfactant technology to treat petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, organometalics, and emerging contaminants, like PFAS.
- By breaking the rules of hydro-geo-chemistry, Ivey-sol® improves contaminant accessibility for all forms of physical (MPE, DPVE, P&T, Thermal), biological (aerobic and/or anaerobic), and chemical (REDOX) methods.
DNAPL Remediation at Petrochemical Plant
In-situ Ivey-sol® remediation of TCE, Dichlorobenzene (DCB), Styrene, and BTEX in fine-textured geology realizing >800% mass removal over Multi-Phase Extraction (MPE), with plume in close proximity of municipal water supply.
In-situ Ivey-sol Remediation of Weathered LNAPL
In-situ Ivey-sol® remediation of LNAPL, soil, and groundwater, within the smear zone, associated with a 20+ year-old fuel oil spill at an active medical facility located in close proximity of a down gradient town water supply wells.
Ivey-sol Surfactant Enhanced Sweep Application
In-situ Ivey-sol® sweep application between injection and recovery well fields to treat subsurface vapour, soil, dissolved, LNAPL/DNAPL plumes under a roadway, building, near a pipeline, utilities, and/or areas with access limitations.
In-situ Ivey-sol Injections at a Service Station
Gravity fed Ivey-sol® application at multiple injection wells to treat residual petroleum hydrocarbons within fine-grain pathways of silt and clay soils, to significantly enhance P&T remediation for regulatory clean-up goals.
LNAPL Remediation at Commercial Site
In-situ Ivey-sol® remediation of LNAPL plume within UST Tank Farm Spill. Remediation involved three Ivey-sol® push-pull applications at multiple injection wells within one month period to resolve measurable LNAPL.
Post LNAPL Remediation at Commercial Site
Post In-situ Ivey-sol® Remediation of LNAPL Diesel Plume originating from large UST Tank Farm Spill. The Ivey-sol® push-pull applications resolved measurable LNAPL to achieve State clean-up requirements for the site.
Ivey-sol Surfactant Enhanced Push-Pull Application
In-situ Ivey-sol® push-pull application at individual wells to treat subsurface vapour, soil, dissolved, LNAPL or DNAPL plumes at a typical contaminated site, negating the need to install a groundwater remediation system.
Cross-Sectional View of Ivey-sol Push-Pull
Illustration shows cross-sectional view of in-situ Ivey-sol® push-pull application process at individual wells to treat vapour, soil, dissolved, LNAPL or DNAPL contamination at a site without installing a groundwater treatment system.
Bench Scale Ivey-sol Treatment of LNAPL
Bench scale treatability study was performed on mid to heavy range LNAPL from a brownfield site to confirm the efficacy of Ivey-sol® to enhance LNAPL mass recovery when coupled with Dual-Phase Vapour Extraction (DPVE).
Bench Scale Ivey-sol Treatment of DNAPL
Bench scale study performed on DNAPL from industrial site that confirmed the efficacy of Ivey-sol® for increasing the misicibility of TCE and DCB to enhance in-situ remediation within fine-grain geology at the site.
Pre to Post Ivey-sol Washing of Frac-sand
Ex-situ Ivey-sol® surfactant enhanced soil washing of frac-sand waste from oil field well operations, undertaken to decontaminate the frac-sand, and allowing for >95% recovery and reuse of the synthetic oils and sands.
Soil Washing of 20,000 Tons Bunker-C Contamination
Ex-situ Ivey-sol® soil washing >20,000 Tons of Bunker-C contaminated soil, with treatment rate of ~50 tons/hr, realizing local regulatory clean-up standards. Over 95% of treated aggregates were recycled for civil applications.
Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation (SEB)
Ex-situ Ivey-sol® surfactant enhanced bioremediation of mid to heavy range petroleum hydrocarbons to increase their bioavailability in a >4000 ton stalled biopile. Post SEB application achieved site clean-up targets within 4 months.
Ex-situ remediation of PCB Oil Tank Farm Spill
Ex-situ Ivey-sol® remediation of PCB transformer oil spill within a large tank farm. Decontamination of tank bases, footings, concrete, piping, and impacted pea gravel successfully concluded three days to regulatory compliance.
Soil Washing of MGP Contaminated Aggregate
Ex-situ Ivey-sol® soil washing of 400 m3 of MGP contaminated sands and gravel from site near Sydney, Australia. Ivey-sol® rapidly liberated heavy petroleum, allowing for the reuse of aggregates and recycling of recovered oil.
Upstream Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation
Ex-situ Ivey-sol® surfactant enhanced bioremediation (SEB) of soils contaminated from an upstream pipeline spill at a remote Northern site. SEB successfully achieved single-season remediation of the impacted soils.
IVEY-SOL FOR IN-SITU REMEDIATION
Since the formation of USEPA (December 1970) and the first Earth Day (April 1970), site assessment remediation has been inundated with many challenges. With many practitioners learning as they go, managing the broadening range of physical, biological, and chemical remediation methods available to them, in-situ and ex-situ remediation has remained a challenging endeavour. Consequently, many sites have been subjected to a plethora of iterative multi-year remediation applications, contaminant-rebound (mass flux), with only partial remediation associated with diminishing rates of impact reduction, and becoming common costly application eulogies.
This is often due to the over-simplification of conceptual site models and associated remediation plans, with reliance on just one (1) remediation technology, or overly complicated treatment plans that pitch ‘elaborate multi-variable management’ and/or use of non-complimentary remediation method combinations (eg. ISCO to treat NAPL). Although these approaches appear very 'novel and clever’, they still fail to address fundamental contaminant hydro-geo-chemical behaviour, phase partitioning, a.k.a. Sorption (Adsorption and Absorption) and NAPL (LNAPL & DNAPL) formation, water clusters, and interfacial tension, which greatly limit target contaminant availability for most remediation technologies, with very few exceptions!
Ivey-sol® Surfactant Remediation Technology, provides an evidence-based solution to overcome contaminant phase-partitioning, interfacial tension, and reducing size of water clusters to increase K in finer texture geology, to enhance physical, biological, and chemical remediation to acheive more consistent project clean-up goals, with measurable time and cost savings.
KNOCK KNOCK, VAPOUR INTRUSION
Vapour intrusion, of volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminants (VOC), is often driving the in-situ remediation of many soil and groundwater impacted sites globally. Where VOC (i.e. petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, moulds, etc.) contaminants reside, in hard to access locations such as under buildings, roadways, rail lines, and similar areas, vapour extraction systems (VES) and/or engineered controls are often used in an effort to mitigate direct-contact pathway risks. Ivey-sol® has the unique ability to interact with VOC’s at a molecular level, making them more miscible in the aqueous phase, and less volatile, allowing for their enhanced mass removal at multi-phase extraction (MPE), and/or similar systems. Enhancement of VOC mass recovery, increased by several hundred to several thousand percent being observed at sites, with Ivey-sol® achieving more VOC mass removal in weeks compared to the MPE mass removal in years.
Ivey-sol® is also very effective for enhancing ex-situ physical, biological and chemical remediation of petroleum, chlorinated solvents, and organometallic impacted soils. As Ivey-sol® overcomes contaminant sorption, it makes the sorbed contaminant more ‘Available’ for enhanced remediation by techniques that include:
- Ex-situ Soil Washing
- Ex-situ Bioremediation
- Ex-situ Chemical REDOX
- Thermal Desorption
IVEY developed and trademarked the following processes:
■ SER® Surfactant Enhanced Remediation
In-situ and ex-situ application processes to liberate sorbed and/or NAPL making them more miscible (soluble) and more ‘Physically-Available’ for mass removal via ex-situ soil washing and thermal desorption;
■ SEB® Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation
In-situ and ex-situ application processes to liberate sorbed contaminants making them more ‘Biologically Available’ for microbial (bacteria and fungi) and associated enzymatic degradation. SEB enhances all bioremediation methods including: bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation, and newer enhanced biological techniques for aerobic, anaerobic and facultative microbial mineralization.
■ SEC® Surfactant Enhanced Chemicalization
In-situ and ex-situ application processes to liberate sorbed contaminants making them more ‘Chemically-Available’ for chemical REDOX (i.e. Reduction, Oxidation and/or combined Reduction-Oxidation) by chemical agents. SEC® improves the availability of the contaminants to the chemical REDOX, facilitating improved contact and reaction kinetics, to enhance the chemical reagent degradation of target contaminants. This process may also be modified for application with chemical REDOX reagents for ex-situ soil applications for a broad range of COC and/or as a preliminary step to ex-situ SER, SEB, or SEC treatment remediation.